Humans are the only inhabitants of earth that are masters of true altruism: helping others with no thought of reward. Previous experiments had shown that chimpanzees lack this trait. Given an opportunity to help another chimp get a banana, they showed no pattern of charity. New experiments by researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, have contradicted the earlier studies, indicating a possible simple altruistic behavior. In three experiments, chimps unable to reach a banana did make it possible 80% of the time for a neighbor in an adjacent room to obtain it, even if it was costly to them, and they had to use a newly acquired skill to give access to the food. For a control, they tried it with human infants and got similar outcomes. The research was published in PLoS Biology.1. Acknowledging that their work differed from previous experiments, they said, “These results indicate that chimpanzees share crucial aspects of altruism with humans, suggesting that the roots of human altruism may go deeper than previous experimental evidence suggested.” The news media are expressing these results as evidence of ethical behavior in the animal world: “Is it a chimp help chimp world?” asked [email protected] “Chimps not so selfish after all,” announced Science Now. “Research shows chimps can be selfless,” said Charles Q. Choi at LiveScience, adding “Observations may shed light on evolution of altruism.” Some of the articles include views by those skeptical of the results. Choi mentioned that it is not clear chimpanzees in the wild would behave like those in captivity. [email protected] also brought this up; Joan Silk (UCLA) also wondered if the age of the chimps mattered, or if other factors contributed to the outcome. But none of the reports questioned whether altruism had evolved, but whether these experiments showed how it evolved. [email protected] ended by asking whether “Human society… has cultivated a trait that was already present, rather than inventing it anew.” The authors of the paper, Warneken et al, said, “The evolutionary roots of human altruism may thus go deeper than previously thought, reaching as far back as the last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees.” From another angle, Science Now speculated earlier this month that humans are altruistic because it feels good. Adam Hinterthuer wrote, “You don’t need to donate to charity to feel all warm inside. Researchers have found that even when money is taken from some people involuntarily, they feel good about the transaction, as long as the funds go to a good cause.” Does this explain why people succumb to the legal plunder known as paying taxes? Neuroscientists at the University of Oregon measured a “warm glow” reaction using MRI when 19 female subjects gave (or lost) money that they were told went for a good cause. Presumably, this shows humans are neurologically wired for warm-glow reactions. It appears to provide a selfish explanation for giving. What seems to be lacking is an explanation for how the warm-glow response became attached to altruism via mutations, and passed on to one’s descendents by natural selection.1 Felix Warneken, Brian Hare, Alicia P. Melis, Daniel Hanus, Michael Tomasello, “Spontaneous Altruism by Chimpanzees and Young Children,” Public Library of Science: Biology 5(7): e184 doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050184.So where’s the Monkey Red Cross, or the United Apes Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization? Why don’t The Monkeys organize a rock concert (03/27/2007) to raise funds for Banana Aid? The chimp behavior only underscores the gulf between me, thee, and the chimpanzee. Animals in captivity often take cues from their human caregivers and respond in ways that are likely to produce rewards. Your dog probably shows more charity to you than these apes ever would (though Lassie shows never revealed the off-set director with his cues). Even in the wild, animals often show care and sacrifice (think ants, bees, and March of the Penguins). These acts, however, are limited to the population, explained as learned adaptations that help pass on the genes of the species. Mutualistic symbiosis also has “selfish” evolutionary stories. (Darwinism is built on SELF as the designer god.) Evolutionists have felt they have had plausible just-so stories for all behavior but this one: true, self-sacrificing altruism toward strangers. That’s why the excitement every time an experiment suggests or appears to shed light (Darwinian code for hoping in the dark) on a missing puzzle piece for their scheme. Did you notice their explanation? It’s becoming all too familiar. They pushed the origin of the trait further back into the misty past, suggesting it arose millions of years earlier in a remote, mythical, unspecified common ancestor. This is how they lock up their documents in the basement. When we want to see them, they just smile and say, “trust us.” Good grief, the neighboring chimps banged on the door so loud the “altruistic” ones probably gave in just to get some peace and quiet. Let’s see the chimpanzees organize a campaign to rescue an endangered species – like rational humans.(Visited 12 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Brand South Africa is inviting young and old in North West to engage with the Play Your Part Cube in the latest edition of its roadshow. The aim is for people to become active citizens within their communities.The Play Your Part Cube will be in Potchefstroom this week, and it will encourage people of North West to help their fellow South Africans. (Image source: Brand South Africa, Youtube)Ray MaotaBrand South Africa will be hosting the North West leg of the Play Your Part (PYP) Roadshow at North West University’s (NWU) Potchefstroom campus on Thursday, 16 February.Attendees are invited to interact with the PYP Cube and will be encouraged to participate in education and skills development within their communities.The initiative is a partnership between Brand South Africa and One Day Leader, a TV programme on the South African Broadcasting Corporation which promotes leadership and entrepreneurship within society.Corporates involvedPrivate enterprise has always been involved with the PYP Roadshow and the North West edition will not be any different.Volkswagen general manager in Klerksdorp, Clinton Bezuidenhout, is part of a panel discussion. Other businesspeople involved are entrepreneur and chief executive of the Wesvaal Chamber of Business, Sanele Makinane; Professor Du Plessis from the NWU School of Governance; Delmarie Van Zyl of the Potch Business Chamber; and social entrepreneur, Neeta Morar.The event is a continuation of the PYP Roadshow from last year where actor and singer Zola7; businesswoman Phindi Gule and her partner, Kevin Burley; businesswoman Carol Bouwer; One Day Leader ambassadors, and DJ Sbu’s Leadership 2020 inspired people across six provinces.The Cube connected citizens to social media platforms, encouraged conversations on active citizenship and got people to pledge their time and skills to make a difference.A mining provinceNorth West is a mining province with more than half of its gross domestic product generated from the sector. It also provides jobs for a quarter of the province’s workforce. The main minerals mined are gold, uranium, platinum and diamonds.The province also has a healthy agricultural sector. Farmers in the north-western parts of the province predominantly raise livestock while the south-eastern farmers grow crops such as maize, sunflowers, tobacco, cotton and citrus fruits.The province views increasing employment opportunities, accelerating housing delivery and combating crime, substance abuse and violence against woman and children as its main priorities.People can engage with the PYP Cube, Brand South Africa and its partners on Twitter using #PYPCube during the session.Would you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See Using Brand South Africa material.
South Africa is one of the best destinations worldwide for watching marine wildlife, including whales, whether from land or from boats, with spectacular annual visits from southern right and humpback whales and enormous pods of dolphins year-round.At least 37 species of whales and dolphins can be found in the waters off South Africa, and is most famous for rare encounters with southern right whales and humpback whales. (Image: Wikipedia)Brand South Africa reporterEvery year, southern right whales migrate from their icy feeding grounds off Antarctica to warmer climates, reaching South Africa in June. The country’s coastal waters teem with the giant animals, mating, calving and rearing their young – and giving whale-watchers spectacular displays of raw power and elegant water acrobatics.Watch out for:Blowing – the sound the whale makes when expelling air through its blowhole, which is accompanied by a spout of condensed water vapour; this is the normal breathing pattern of the mammal.Breaching – the whale leaps out of the water and falls back in with a large splash; whales can breach three to eight times in succession and the behavior is believed to be a means of communication, exercise or possibly to scratch the parasites off that live on them.Lobtailing – the whale slaps its fluke or tail on the water, causing a loud sound; again, it is believed to be a means of communication.Spy hopping – the whale lifts its head and body vertically, as far as the flippers, above the surface, which allows it to see what is happening around it above water.When is the best time?The best time for watching the southern right whale in South African waters is from June to November along the Cape south coast, although some will already be as far north as KwaZulu-Natal. Peak calving season is July and August, but whales can be seen through September and October.The curious humpback whale can be seen between May to December, moving up along the coast from Hermanus to St Lucia in KwaZulu-Natal.The medium-sized Bryde’s whale can be spotted all year round, and while rare, orcas can also be seen.In terms of the Marine Living Resources Act of 1998, it is an offence to approach any whale closer than 300m without a permit, so if you book a whale- watching cruise, make sure the company has a permit before you get on board.Where are the best spots?South African whale-watching territory runs from Doringbaai, far up the Cape West Coast, around the Cape Peninsula and as far up the East Coast as St Lucia, near the Mozambique border. They can be viewed from cliffs and beaches, while boat operators offer trips out to sea for close encounters.The route includes several famous protected areas, such as Table Mountain National Park, Garden Route, Tsitsikamma National Park, Transkei National Park and iSimangaliso Wetland Park.At least 37 species of whales and dolphins are found in South Africa’s oceans, although they are most famous for encounters with southern right whales, humpback whales, and several coastal dolphin species. Keep an eye open for African penguins, Cape fur seals, black oystercatcher birds and a variety of other marine life.Western CapeThe southern right’s breeding ground is the sheltered bays of the Western Cape coast, with the majestic animals spending up to five months a year here. They pass their time playing, courting, and nursing their newborn calves, providing spectacular land-based viewing.On the Cape West Coast, excellent sightings of southern rights can be enjoyed all the way from Strandfontein to Lambert’s Bay, Elands Bay, St Helena, Saldanha and Ysterfontein, just north of Cape Town.Whales can also be seen all around the Cape Peninsula.In Cape Town itself, you can see them from the road along the False Bay coast, and they’re distinctly visible on the western seaboard if you get high enough on the scenic coastal Victoria Road.Further south, the town of Hermanus in Walker Bay on the Cape south coast offers possibly the best land-based whale-watching in the world. The animals can be clearly seen from a scenic cliff-top walk, and the town holds a whale-watching festival every September. The Whale Crier informs the townsfolk and visitors of whale sightings and where the whales have come into the old harbour to calve.For the more adventurous, there is also aerial whale watching.Follow the coast to Cape Agulhas, the southernmost tip of Africa where two mighty oceans meet. It is particularly rewarding, with great views of southern right cows and calves at play – up to 50 pairs at a time.Mossel Bay, Plettenberg Bay and the Garden RouteThe whale-watching season in Mossel Bay runs from June to November, when four species are seen. The southern right is the most commonly sighted, coming into the bay to calve, but look for humpback, Bryde’s and orcas as well.Either drive along the coast, where there are informative whale interpretation boards at view points, or take a boat based whale-watching trip, or hike the St Blaize trail. Schools of up to 500 dolphins add to the spectacle. The most common dolphins found all year are heaviside’s, common, dusky and bottlenose.Southern rights visit Plettenberg Bay, further east, on the Western Cape Garden Route, from about June to November. Migratory humpback whales can also be briefly seen from May and June and then, on their return trip, from about November to January.Bryde’s whales or orcas are occasionally seen, and bottlenose and humpback dolphins are in residence all year. A breeding colony of Cape fur seals completes Plettenberg Bays’ impressive array of marine mammals.It is in Plett that the dolphin and whale-watching industry is most organised, with trips in boats, kayaks and aircraft on offer. Viewing, distances and time spent with each animal are strictly monitored so that there is minimal interference.The Garden Route generally, from Stilbaai through Mossel Bay and on to George, Wilderness, Knysna and Tsitsikamma, is a magnificent stretch of coastline hosting southern rights in their season, humpbacks between May and December, Bryde’s whales all year round – and, occasionally, killer whales.Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-NatalFrom Cape St Francis to the rugged Eastern Cape Wild Coast are numerous vantage points to see humpbacks, Bryde’s, minke and killer whales and quite often southern rights, especially in Algoa Bay, while sperm and beaked whales approach close to shore off Port St Johns.Humpback whales, and sometimes southern rights, can be spotted almost daily off the KwaZulu-Natal coast, occasionally being spotted as far north as Cape Vidal. From mid-May to mid-September, the whales are moving north on their way to their breeding grounds off the Mozambique coast, and from September to December they return, heading for the nutrient-rich waters of Antarctica.There are boat-based tours, but for land-based viewing there is a whale-watching tower at Cape Vidal and Mpenjati. Throughout the year pods of bottlenose dolphins of 30 to 50 strong routinely patrol up and down the coast just beyond the breakers.Article updated December 2015Sources: Centre for Dolphin Studies, Hermanus Tourism, South African TourismWould you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See Using Brand South Africa material
By Kacy A. Mixon, M.S., LMFT[Flickr, 111229-F-AY498-199, by North Carolina National Guard, CC BY-ND 2.0] Retrieved on September 23, 2015This week’s RESOURCE DISCOVERY features a U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs website housing a fact sheet about how children typically respond to parents struggling with PTSD. The fact sheet outlines the relevance of looking at how PTSD in parents affects military children and also provides insight into how children respond. The social and behavioral problems that these children may show are addressed, along with potential risks children may experience related to emotional problems and secondary traumatization. The fact sheet also offers steps that parents can take to prevent and alleviate the effects of PTSD on children. Professionals working with military families can utilize this resource to not only become more aware of how parental PTSD impacts children but also to better inform military parents struggling with this issue.Sherman, M. & Sherman, D. (2005). Finding my way: A teen’s guide to living with a parent who has experienced trauma. Seeds of Hope, Waco, TX.Also featured is a book called Finding My Way: A Teen’s Guide to Living with a Parent who has Experienced Trauma. Authors Michelle D. Sherman, PhD and DeAnne M. Sherman offer a three-part book that can help adolescents address issues related to having a parent struggling with PTSD.“This honest and respectfully written manual serves as a road map for teens who are trying to find their way.”This is an interactive book that not only explains PTSD but also co-occurring problems (such as substance abuse) commonly associated with PTSD. In addition, this resource for teens encourages readers to address the uncomfortable emotions and provides opportunities to learn about and develop healthy coping strategies including finding expressive outlets. This post was written by Kacy Mixon, M.S., LMFT, Social Media Specialist. She is a member of the MFLN Family Development (FD) team which aims to support the development of professionals working with military families. Find out more about the Military Families Learning Network FD concentration on our website, on Facebook, on Twitter, YouTube, and on LinkedIn.
Jablonec star Michal Travnik watched by Newcastle, Fulhamby Chris Beattie10 months agoSend to a friendShare the loveCzech Republic midfielder Michal Travnik is attracting Premier League interest.The 24-year-old has been starring for Jablonec this season and has caught the eye with his performances, notably in the Europa League.The Daily Mail says Newcastle and Fulham are both looking to strengthen in January but they will face competition for Travnik.Bundesliga side Augsburg and CSKA Moscow have also been impressed this season.He has five caps for his country and is valued at around £4million by his club who are third in the league. TagsTransfersAbout the authorChris BeattieShare the loveHave your say
About the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your say Bayern Munich striker Lewandowski: We can beat Liverpoolby Paul Vegas10 months agoSend to a friendShare the loveBayern Munich striker Robert Lewandowski has welcomed their Champions League draw with Liverpool.It will mean Lewandowski facing Jurgen Klopp, his former Borussia Dortmund coach.”It’s going to be a fantastic battle. Let’s go Bavaria, we can do it!” declared the Pole on social media.Also Klopp is – like everyone connected to football in Germany – full of anticipation: “It will be difficult, they have a top team, but for me it is nice to return to Germany. “I look forward to it.”
With today’s launch of his new show Speak For Yourself, Colin Cowherd is poised to become one of the most important figures at Fox Sports 1, as it continues to shift to fit network president Jamie Horowitz’s infamous “embrace debate” strategy. The Washington Post‘s Rick Maese wrote a profile on Cowherd, where he admits his desire to be loved by viewers, and apologizes for one of his most notable on-air gaffes. After the death of former Miami Hurricanes and NFL superstar Sean Taylor, Cowherd blamed the victim, citing “23 years of bad judgment” as a reason for his death.Cowherd went on air and said, “Sometimes you’ve got stains, stuff so deep it never ever leaves. . . . And if you have bad judgment for 23 years of your life, even if you clean it up, your judgment doesn’t get great overnight.”He’s not proud of that today.“I just ad-libbed it. I think I was just too harsh,” he said. “That’s one of those, ‘Dammit, you know, I wish I could really take that back.’ . . . I wish I could do that over again, and I feel bad. But in my life, I can’t. It’s there. It’s somewhere archived. It’s just part of my biography, part of my archive. But I look at it now, I wish I could reel it back in. . . .“I probably should’ve scaled it back. I didn’t, and I paid a price. It made people very angry.”This was perhaps the worst of Cowherd’s many controversial stances, but it is far from his only one. Cowherd has long held a bizarre grudge against Washington Wizards point guard John Wall, after he did his signature dance before his first NBA game. Wall’s former college coach John Calipari has asked Cowherd to walk it back, but even after Wall won this year’s NBA Community Assist Award, Cowherd has not. Before leaving ESPN for FOX, Cowherd was suspended after asserting that Dominican baseball players are not well-educated.We don’t expect Cowherd to change much, especially as he expands to even more formats at FOX. That is a lot of time to fill, and like him or not, Cowherd is an expert at doing just that. [The Washington Post]MORE FROM COLLEGE SPUN:The 10 Most Aggressive Fan Bases In CFBIn Photos: Golfer Paige SpiranacESPN Makes Decision On Dick Vitale
Minister of Labour and Social Security, Hon. Shahine Robinson, has announced a 12.9 per cent increase in the national minimum wage from $6,200 to $7,000 per week. The new rates are the result of the recommendations from the National Minimum Wage Commission, which conducted public consultations and submitted its recommendations to the Ministry. Story Highlights Meanwhile, she said in the fiscal year 2018/19, the Ministry will be working to complete amendments to the Minimum Wage Act, National Minimum Wage Order and Employment Agencies Regulations Act to incorporate provisions related to the International Labour Organisation (ILO) Convention No. 189 on Domestic Workers. Minister of Labour and Social Security, Hon. Shahine Robinson, has announced a 12.9 per cent increase in the national minimum wage from $6,200 to $7,000 per week.In addition, security guards will receive $9,700 up from $8,854 per week, reflecting a 9.6 per cent increase.The new rates take effect August 1, 2018.Mrs. Robinson, who made the announcements in the House of Representatives on Tuesday (June 26), noted that the increases establish a minimum standard or threshold for the payment of wages.“After careful consideration, the Cabinet has agreed to grant an increase in the national minimum wage and minimum wages for security guards,” she said.The new rates are the result of the recommendations from the National Minimum Wage Commission, which conducted public consultations and submitted its recommendations to the Ministry.“We have reviewed the recommendations. We have taken into account the stability of the Jamaican economy, the rate of inflation and the economic circumstance of the workers as well as the ability of the employers to absorb an increase,” she noted.Meanwhile, Mrs. Robinson recommended that a joint select committee of Parliament be established to address issues raised concerning security guards.“I want it to have the full involvement of all stakeholders, including my colleagues on the other side of this House,” she saidMeanwhile, she said in the fiscal year 2018/19, the Ministry will be working to complete amendments to the Minimum Wage Act, National Minimum Wage Order and Employment Agencies Regulations Act to incorporate provisions related to the International Labour Organisation (ILO) Convention No. 189 on Domestic Workers.
“This means that the JAS will have to stand on its own two feet, and it will have to make money, so that it can finance its operations,” the Minister explained, as he addressed the Montpelier Agricultural and Industrial Show in St. James on April 22. Minister without Portfolio in the Ministry of Industry, Commerce, Agriculture and Fisheries, Hon. J.C. Hutchinson, has informed that the Jamaica Agricultural Society (JAS) will be transitioning from a government to a non-governmental organisation (NGO) over the next two years. The Minister pointed out that the 125-year-old organisation, which currently boasts over 220 members, would no longer receive the annual sum of $100 million that was used to fund operations at the JAS. Story Highlights Minister without Portfolio in the Ministry of Industry, Commerce, Agriculture and Fisheries, Hon. J.C. Hutchinson, has informed that the Jamaica Agricultural Society (JAS) will be transitioning from a government to a non-governmental organisation (NGO) over the next two years.“This means that the JAS will have to stand on its own two feet, and it will have to make money, so that it can finance its operations,” the Minister explained, as he addressed the Montpelier Agricultural and Industrial Show in St. James on April 22.The Minister pointed out that the 125-year-old organisation, which currently boasts over 220 members, would no longer receive the annual sum of $100 million that was used to fund operations at the JAS.Meanwhile, Mr. Hutchinson encouraged farmers to view what they do as a business in order for them to get maximum output from the agricultural sector.Minister without Portfolio in the Ministry of Industry, Commerce, Agriculture and Fisheries, Hon. J.C. Hutchinson (right), in discussion with President of the Hanover Bee Farmers’ Cooperative Society, Winford Murray (left), at the Montpelier Agricultural and Industrial Show, held in St. James, on April 22. With the Minister (from second left) are Member of Parliament, Victor Wright; and President of the St. James Association of Branch Societies of the Jamaica Agricultural Society (JAS), Glendon Harris. The crops, when reaped, will be graded and distributed, with grade ‘A’ going to hotels and the export market; grade ‘B’ will be sold to the local market, and grade ‘C’ will be used to make purées, juices and other value-added items.The Montpelier Agricultural and Industrial Show was organised by the St. James Association of Branch Societies of the JAS. It is staged annually to promote the work of farmers in Western Jamaica. “Farming cannot go on as usual; it cannot be the same old, same old thing. We now have to look at farming as a business,” the Minister emphasised.“One of the biggest problems in agriculture is marketing. Farmers will come into agriculture and the first thing they ask about is the market. What we find now is that of the crops grown, higglers take the best produce, and the rest goes to waste. It is time now that we move to an area whereby we can market everything that the farmer grows,” he said.Mr. Shaw said that the first agro-economic zone, which will be established at Holland in St. Elizabeth, will tackle that very issue.The 2,400-acre agro-economic zone will be comprised of farms as well as packaging and processing facilities. The project is expected to provide jobs for over 900 persons.Minister without Portfolio in the Ministry of Industry, Commerce, Agriculture and Fisheries, Hon. J.C. Hutchinson (left), watches as owner of Just-A-Juice Cane Juice Limited, Melvin Jones, demonstrates the proper way to use a cane juicer. Also observing are (from second left): President of the St. James Association of Branch Societies of the Jamaica Agricultural Society (JAS), Glendon Harris; and Member of Parliament, Victor Wright. Occasion was the Montpelier Agricultural and Industrial Show, which was held in St. James on April 22.
Members of Ohio State’s men’s ice hockey team celebrate a goal by freshman forward Tanner Laczynski (9) in the third period of the Buckeye’s game against Bowling Green on Oct. 22. The Buckeyes won 6-1. Credit: Breanna Crye | For The LanternAfter being swept last weekend by No. 18 Wisconsin, the Ohio State men’s hockey team (12-6-6, 3-4-1-1) travels to Ann Arbor, Michigan, this weekend for a conference clash with the rivaled Michigan Wolverines.The Buckeyes will remain without senior forward and captain Nick Schilkey due to injury, as well as senior defender Josh Healey, who was suspended for Friday’s matchup after a hit on Wisconsin senior forward Grant Besse during a game against the Badgers on Jan. 28.As a player averaging 32 minutes per game this season, Scarlet and Gray coach Steve Rohlik said Healey’s presence will be tough to replace on the ice, but added that his absence allows an opening for other guys to step into his place.“We’re a resilient group, and we’ll have 16 (players) dressed, ready to go,” Rohlik said. “He’s going to be missed, but that’s just going to make sure that other guys pick their pace up and are better.”The Wolverines (8-12-2, 1-6-1-1) began conference play this season with three straight losses, and now lie in fifth place in the Big Ten standings after losing four of their last six games.Despite recent results, Rohlik said his team can’t look past last season’s conference tournament champions. He added that OSU will need to bring its all in order to leave the state of Michigan with two victories this weekend.“Michigan is Michigan. They’re capable of beating anyone in the country, and we understand that,” Rohlik said. “We’ve got a lot of respect for who they are, what they are, and I say this all the time but we’re going to have to be at our best to win hockey games, and we’re going to have to bring it Friday to get a win.”Yost Ice Arena, the home of Wolverine hockey, is a bucket list venue for any hockey fan. With that, Scarlet and Gray sophomore forward Mason Jobst — who leads the Buckeyes in points this year and currently sits on a 10-game point streak — said OSU has played in a handful of tough settings so far this season, and that the Buckeyes welcome the challenge of another this weekend.“We’ve played in a few barns this year that have been pretty hostile, so it’s always good to have experience coming back,” Jobst said. “I think the young guys have done a great job handling it, and Yost will be a fun place to play, so I think everyone’s pretty excited.”Puck drop for Friday’s Game One of this series is slated for 8 p.m., while Saturday’s Game Two start is set for 7:30 p.m.