Analysis of lacustrine sediments is an accepted method for deciphering the palaeoenvironment of a lake’s catchment area, as each strata of the sediment gives information about the rock type it was eroded from and also the state of the lake, i.e. oxic or anoxic. Antarctica has long been accepted as a putative analogue for Mars, so the analysis of Antarctic material may give results that can be compared to sediments on Mars. Raman spectroscopy has been selected as the method of analysis as it does not destroy the sample, can be used in situ and requires very little sample preparation. It is a suitable method for analysing both inorganic and organic matter and a miniature spectrometer is currently being developed for use in the field. The results from the spectrometers can serve as a guide for analysing sediments on Mars. It has been shown that Raman spectroscopy can detect and differentiate between oxic and anoxic sediments. Both 1064 and 785 nm wavelengths are suitable for laser excitation of organic and inorganic matter.